Question Formulation Technique and Chalk Talk
There are two strategies that teachers can use to encourage students to communicate their understanding in science class: Question Formulation Technique (QFT) and Chalk Talk.
The Question Formulation Technique is used to teach students how to craft and use their own questions using the following steps (Rothstein & Santana, 2014):
- Design a question focus.
- Produce questions.
- Work with closed-ended and open-ended questions.
- Prioritize questions.
- Plan next steps.
Chalk Talk is a technique in which students participate in non-verbal, open-ended 'discussion' about the lesson topic on paper. A teacher would use to technique to promote independent thinking, encourage all students to share their perspective, expose students to the perspectives of their peers, generate ideas, prompt questions, encourage problem-solving and reflective thinking.
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